A bible, seized by Turkey in 2000 after an investigation into antique smuggling, could hold the Gospel of Barnabas – a gospel which differs radically from the other four gospels most people are familiar with today – Mattew, Mark, Luke and John. The bible languished in a state courthouse until the trial of the men ended but has now been handed over to the Ankara Ethnography Museum where is will undergo some minor restoration before going on public view.

The Gospel of Barnabas is unique because in it, Jesus is thought to predict the coming of the islamic Prophet Muhammed. Jesus also says he himself is not a god but only a prophet (i.e. a man). It also rejects the Trinity and cruxification, both central tenants of modern day Christianity.

 

The bible is written on animal hide with gold lettering. The language is Syriac, a dialect of Aramaic, which was the native tongue of Jesus. The text could be worth up to £14 million sterling with copies of the bible selling for between £1 – 2 million sterling.

 

Doubts as to the authenticity of the bible remain – some claim it is a 16th century forgery written by Muslims to cast doubt on the claims of Christianity. Others claim that the Catholic Church supressed the gospel because it was too much in line with the Islamic view of Jesus.

 

The Turkish culture and tourism minister Ertugrul Gunay confirmed the Vatican had requested to view the bible.

1,500 year old biible
1,500 year old biible

1 thought on “Vatican requests to see 1,500 year old bible

  1. The following are a number of strange teachings that have been found in the Gospel of Barnabas:

    1) Is Barnabas one of the twelve disciples?

    The Gospel of Barnabas, opening chapter, mentions with the phrase, Barnabas apostle of Jesus the Nazarene, & yet Luke 6:13-17, Mark 3:14-19 & Matthew 10:2-4 do not support that Barnabas was one of the twelve apostles of Jesus. The following are the extracts:

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 14: “Jesus, seeing that great was the multitude of them…chose twelve, whom he called apostles, among whom is Judas, who was slain upon the cross. Their names are Andrew and Peter his brother, fishermen; BARNABAS, who wrote this, with Matthew the publican, who sat at the receipt of custom; John and James, sons of Zebedee; Thaddaeus and Judas; Bartholomew and Philip; James, and Judas Iscariot the traitor.”

    Matthew 10:2-4 (King James Version), “Now the names of the twelve apostles are these; The first, Simon, who is called Peter, and Andrew his brother; James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother; Philip, and Bartholomew; Thomas, and Matthew the publican; James the son of Alphaeus, and Lebbaeus, whose surname was Thaddaeus; Simon the Canaanite, and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him.”

    2) Contradiction in the Gospel of Barnabas whether Jesus Christ should be the Son of God.

    The Gospel of Barnabas, opening chapter, refers to Jesus the Nazarene as Christ. The word, Christ, has been defined in the dictionary as spelt out in the website, https://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/Lexicon/Lexicon.cfm?strongs=G5547&t=KJV, to be the Messiah, the Son of God. Or in other words, The Gospel of Barnabas, opening chapter, which has named Jesus to be Christ, has indirectly called Him to be the Messiah, the Son of God. The following is the extract:

    The Gospel of Barnabas, Opening – True Gospel of Jesus, CALLED CHRIST, a new prophet sent by God to the world: according to the description Barnabas his apostle:”

    Yet the subsequent verse of the same chapter mentions contradictorily against what it has declared Jesus to be Christ. The following is the extract:

    The Gospel of Barnabas, Opening: “‘Dearly beloved the great and wonderful God hath during these past days visited us by his prophet Jesus Christ in great mercy of teaching and miracles, by reason whereof many, being deceived of Satan, under the presence of piety, are preaching most impious doctrine, calling Jesus Son of God.’

    As the phrase, deceived of Satan, is mentioned in the Gospel of Barnabas, Opening, with the phrase, Jesus Son of God, it implies that the verse rejects Jesus to be the Son of God.

    The same is mentioned in both chapter 42 & 53. The following are the extracts:

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 42, “(that) Jesus confessed, and said the truth: “I am not the Messiah.”

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 53: “(that) And having said this, Jesus smote his face with both his hands, and then smote the ground with his head. And having raised his head, he said: “Cursed be every one who shall insert into my sayings that I am the son of God.”

    The above contradiction implies the Gospel of Barnabas is a book of lie.

    3) Contradiction in the Gospel of Barnabas whether Jesus Christ should be God.

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 6, mentions that the birth of Jesus in Bethlehem was the fulfilment of the prophecy as indicated by a prophet in the past. The following is the extract:

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 6, “…Herod therefore called together the priests and the scribes, saying: ‘Where should Christ be born? They answered that he should be born in Bethlehem; for thus it is written by the prophet: ‘And thou, Bethlehem, art not little among the princes of Judah: for out of thee shall come forth a leader, who shall led my people Israel.’ ”

    This prophecy could be located in Micah 5:2 as follows:

    Micah 5:2 (King James Version), “…Bethlehem Ephratah, though thou be little among the thousands of Judah, yet out of thee shall he come forth unto me, that is to be ruler in Israel; whose goings forth have been from of, from everlasting.”

    As the word, ruler, is mentioned in Micah 5:2 with the phrase, from everlasting, it implies that this ruler should have existed ever since everlasting even though he was born in Bethlehem. As this ruler should have existed ever since everlasting, there is no beginning for him. As he has no beginning, it is irrational to assume he was created by God.

    As the Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 6, quotes the prophecy from Micah 5:2 for the birth of Jesus, it indirectly refers Jesus to be that ruler that has no beginning.

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 1 & 2, support that Jesus was born in the lineage of David. The following are the extracts:

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 1, ‘In These last years a virgin Mary, of the Lineage of David, of the tribe of Judah, was visited by the angel Gabriel from God….’ The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 2, ‘Mary having the will of God, fearing the people, lest they should take offense at her being great with child, and should stone her as guilty of fornication, chose a companion of her own lineage, a man named called, of blameless life: for he as a righteous man feared God and served him with fasting and prayers,…’

    As the phrase, chose a companion of her own lineage, is mentioned in in the Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 2 with the phrase, virgin Mary of the Lineage of David, in chapter 1, it implies that the Gospel of Barnabas supports that Jesus should be born in the lineage of David.

    The same is mentioned in chapter 21 below:

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 21, ‘….And lo! A woman of Canaan with her two sons, who had come forth out of her own country to find Jesus. Having therefore seen him come with his disciples, she cried out: ‘Jesus, son of David, have mercy on my daughter…’

    According to Jeremiah 23:5-6, a King should be born in the lineage of David and his name should be called, the Lord our righteousness. The following is the extract:

    Jeremiah 2:5-6 (King James Version), “Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will raise unto David a righteous Branch, and a King shall reign and prosper, and shall execute judgment and justice in the earth. In his days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell safely: and this is his name whereby he shall be called, THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS.’

    As Jesus was born in the lineage of David as mentioned in the Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 1 & 2, and Jeremiah 2:5-6 support that a King should be raised from David a righteous Branch and his name should be called, ‘THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUS, it implies that Jesus should be named, The Lord Our Righteousness, since he was born in the lineage of David.

    As Jeremiah 2:5-6 support that Jesus should be named, THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUES, and Micah 5:2 supports that he is a King who has no beginning, it implies that Jesus is God Himself instead of an ordinary person since He should have a beginning if He were an ordinary person.

    The same is mentioned in Isaiah 9:6-7, “(that) For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace. Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and to establish it with judgment and with justice from henceforth even for ever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this.”

    The phrase, his government, in Isaiah 9:7 implies that he is a ruler. The phrase, upon the throne of David, in Isaiah 9:7 gives the implication that he should establish his kingdom upon the throne of David. The phrase, his name shall be called The mighty God, in Isaiah 9:6 implies that he is God Himself.

    As the Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 6, refers the birth of Jesus to be the fulfilment of the prophecy in the Old Testament, it implies that Jesus is The mighty God as spelt out in Isaiah 9:6.

    Even though the above verses from the Gospel of Barnabas could come to the conclusion that Jesus is God, Yet the Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 47, denies that Jesus to be God. The following is the extract:

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 47: ‘Then Jesus feared greatly, and turning himself to God, said: “Take me from the world, O Lord, for the world is mad, and they well near call me God!” And having said this he wept.”

    The contradiction as mentioned above has placed the reliability of the Gospel of Barnabas into question.

    4) The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 27, supports that Abraham was idolatry. The following is the extract:

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 27: “Then said Philip: “O master, how came it to pass that Abraham’s father wished to burn his son?” Jesus answered: “One day, Abraham having come to the age of twelve years, his father said to him: “Tomorrow is the festival of all the gods; therefore we shall go to the great temple and bear a present to my god, GREAT BAAL. And you shall choose for yourself a god, for you are of age to have a god.”

    As the phrase, you shall choose for yourself a god, is mentioned in the Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 27, with the word, Abraham, it implies that the father of Abraham demanded Abraham to choose a god for himself.

    Did Abraham destroy all the idols? No, he did not destroy all but left the great god Baal undestroyed as mentioned in the Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 28, as follows:

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 28: “When every one had departed from the temple, the priests close the temple and went away. Then Abraham took the axe and cut off the feet of all the idols, EXCEPT THE GREAT GOD BAAL…”

    As the phrase, except the great god Baal, is mentioned in the Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 28, it implies that Abraham did not destroy the god Baal and it turned up that he had chosen this god to be his god. Not only that, the phrase, except the great god Baal, in this verse implies that this was not an ordinary god but a great god above others.

    According to the Old Testament, Abraham was not idolatry. The contradiction has placed the reliability of the Gospel of Barnabas into question.

    5) The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 57, seems to be fairy tale since it mentions that spiders, flies, stones and sand could demand justice as if that spiders and flies know what is justice and stones and sand could demand justice even though they are non-living things. The following is the extract:

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 57, “And having said these, all the angels and prophets, with all the elect of God no, why say I the elect? Truly I say to you, that spiders and flies, stones and sand shall cry out against the impious, and shall demand justice.”

    The illogical prophecy has placed the reliability of the Gospel of Barnabas into question since how stones, sand, spiders & flies could respond to justice without even having the sense of reasoning about the existence of the law of God to perform righteously.

    6) The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 53, delivers a contradictory prophecy on the thirteenth day and the fifteenth day regarding the death of all living things. The following are the extracts:

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 53, “The thirteenth day the heaven shall be rolled up like a book, and it shall rain fire, so that every living thing shall die…. The fifteenth day the holy angels shall die, and God alone shall remain alive, to whom be honour and glory.”

    As the phrase, The thirteenth day…every living thing shall die, is mentioned in the Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 53, holy angels should not have existed after the thirteenth day since angels are living things too. Why should the phrase, The fifteenth day the holy angel shall die, be mentioned in the subsequent verse as if that not all of them had died on the thirteenth day? Besides, God should be considered as one of the living things. As the phrase, The thirteenth day…every living thing shall die, is mentioned in the Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 53, God should not have existed on fifteenth day, why should the phrase, The fifteenth day…God alone shall remain alive, be mentioned subsequently? The contradictory prophecy has put the reliability of the Gospel of Barnabas into question.

    7) The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 53, contains illogical prophecy that stars seemed to have brain and could fight violently between each other due to hatred.

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 53, “…The third day the stars shall be seen to fight among themselves like an army of enemies…The fourth day the stones and rocks shall dash against each other as cruel enemies.”

    The above prophecy seems to be fairy tale since the stars could fight among themselves as if each star has hatred against each other to the extent to become enemies even though they are non-living things. Besides, stones and rocks have turned up to have a sense of reasoning so as to have hatred with each other. It seems to be that the prophecy is the made-up story from the writer without any realistic.

    8) The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 53, mentions that plants and herbs could bleed as if that plants and herbs could be animals. The following is the extract:

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 53: “The fifth day every plant and herb shall weep blood.”

    The illogical prophecy has placed the reliability of the Gospel of Barnabas into question since how plants and herbs that are not animals could bleed.

    9) The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 53, gives illogical prophecy that sea water could stand up the entire day by itself. The following is the extract:

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 53: “The sixth day the sea shall rise without leaving its place to the height of one hundred and fifty cubits, and shall stand all day like a wall.”

    The word, cubit, is defined in the dictionary as an ancient measure of length, approximately equal to the length of a forearm. It was typically about 18 inches or 44 cm though there was a long cubit 21 inches or 52 cm. Let’s assume that one cubit is 44 cm. One hundred and fifty cubits is equivalent to 7.8 meter. Or in other words, the sea would be lifted up to 7.8 meter height above the sea level for the entire day. How could the sea be lifted up to 7.8 meter height above the sea level as a wall on an entire day as if that the sea has no gravity to bring it back to original sea level. The illogical prophecy has placed the reliability of the Gospel of Barnabas into question since how the sea could be lifted by itself.

    10) The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 53, gives an illogical prophecy that sea could turn up to be invisible to human beings on the seventh day.

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 53: “The sixth day the sea shall rise without leaving its place to the height of one hundred and fifty cubits, and shall stand all the day like a wall. The seventh day it shall on contrary sink so low as scarcely to be seen.”

    How could it be possible that the entire sea could turn up to be as low as scarcely to be seen within a day as if that sea water is not a non-living thing that could occupy space and could varnish by itself? The prophecy has turned up to be fairy tale without realistic.

    11) The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 53, delivers an illogical prophecy that every river should run blood without water.

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 53: “The eleventh day every river shall run backwards, and shall run blood and not water.”

    If the entire river were filled with blood, it still contained water in it. If the entire river were filled with blood, the red blood cell itself contained water too, or else, the entire would turn up to be dry cell. If every tree could run blood without water, how could blood flow when it was without water as dry blood cell? The entire prophecy has placed the reliability of the Gospel of Barnabas into question since how it could be possible for every river to run blood without water.

    12) The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 53, mentions an illogical prophecy that the tops of the mountains could fly through the air like birds as if that the tops of the mountains could turn up to be living things as birds that could fly up and down according to their wish so as to cause the entire earth to become a plain.

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 53: “The fourteenth day there shall be an earth quake so horrible that the tops of the mountains shall fly through the air like birds, and all the earth shall become a plain.”

    The illogical prophecy has placed the reliability of the Gospel of Barnabas into question since how the tops of mountains that are not birds could fly like birds in the air as if that they could fly wherever they wished as birds.

    13) The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 150, supports that sun and planets could serve their creator even though they are non-living things without a sense of reasoning. The following is the extract:

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 150: “..I ought to consider the obedience of the sun and the planets, for they serve their Creator better than I.”

    The illogical prophecy has placed the reliability of the Gospel of Barnabas into question since how the sun and the planets could serve their creator even though they are non-living things without a sense of reasoning.

    14) The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 136, mentions that all human beings will be thrown into the hell and the righteous will suffer no pain. The following is the extract:

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 136: “Jesus answered: ‘Every one, be he who he may, must go into hell. It is true, however, that the holy ones and prophets of God shall go there to behold, not suffering any punishment and the righteous, only suffering fear…”

    The entire verse seems to be illogical and has placed the reliability of the Gospel of Barnabas into question since how the holy ones and prophets of God could suffer no pain when they are thrown into the hell and hell fire keeps on burning on them.

    15) The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 40, mentions that serpent could have the right to prevent Satan to enter into paradise as if that that serpent had the key to Paradise instead of God even though the word, serpent, is defined in the dictionary as a snake.

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 40: “When Satan had knowledge of this he became mad with indignation, and so he drew near to the gate of paradise where a horrid serpent with legs like a camel, and nails on his feet [that] cut like a razor on every side, stood on guard. The enemy said to him: ‘Let me to enter into paradise.’
    The serpent answered: ‘How shall I let you enter [since] God has commanded me to cast you out?’ Satan answered: ‘You see how much God loves you; he has set you outside of paradise to keep guard over a lump of clay, which is man! If you bring me into paradise I will make you so terrible that every one shall flee you, and so you shall go and stay at your pleasure.’ Then the serpent said: ‘And how shall I set you within [paradise]?’ “

    The word, serpent, is defined in this website, https://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/Lexicon/Lexicon.cfm?strongs=H5175&t=KJV, to be a snake. As serpent is a snake, how could the Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 40, mention that the serpent could have power to prevent Satan to enter into paradise as if that that serpent had the similar power as God to prevent evil to the entry of paradise? This has placed the reliability of the Gospel of Barnabas into question.

    The entire verse has put the reliability of the Gospel of Barnabas into question since how serpent could have the key to paradise even though it is just a snake instead of God.

    16) The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 40, condemns God to be wicked and envious, and suffers no equals, but keeps every one as a slave and yet Ezra 9:15 mentions that God is righteous instead of wicked. The following are the extracts:

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 40, “Satan answered: ‘He does not speak the truth! You must know that God is wicked and envious, and suffers no equals, but keeps every one as a slave. [This is] why he has said this [to you]; in order that you may not become equal to him…’

    Ezra 9:15 (King James Version), “O LORD God of Israel, thou art righteous:…”

    The above has put the reliability of the Gospel of Barnabas into question since how God could be wicked as if that He did commit sin as He wished.

    17) The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 94, mentions that Moses had the capability to use rod to turn water into blood, the dust into fleas, the dew into tempest, the light into darkness, and even to make the frogs and mice to come into Egypt as if that he was powerful as the same as God and yet Exodus 7:3 & 17 mentions that God was the One to cause the wonders to be multiplied. The following are the extracts:

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 94: “…if you read the testament and covenant of our God you would see that Moses with a rod made the water turn into blood, the dust into fleas, the dew into tempest, and the light into darkness. He made the frogs and mice to come into Egypt, which covered the ground, he slew the first-born, and opened the sea, wherein he drowned Pharaoh…”

    Exodus 7:1 (King James Version), “And the LORD said unto Moses, …” Exodus 7:3 (King James Version), “And I will multiply my signs and my wonders in the land of Egypt”.

    As the phrase, I will multiply…my wonders in the land of Egypt, is mentioned in Exodus 7:3 with the phrase, The LORD said,” in Exodus 7:1, it implies that all the wonders in Egypt that Moses performed were the work of God.

    AS Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 94, mentions that Moses had the power to perform wonders instead of God as if that he as an ordinary person could have supernatural power to perform impossible thing, it has placed the reliability of the Gospel of Barnabas into question.

    18) The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 38, mentions Elijah could have the capability to cause fire to come down from heaven and yet 1 Kings 18:17 mentions that he sought God for assistance to cause the fire of the LORD to go down to consume the burnt sacrifice. The following are the extracts:

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 38: “…Elijah, who made the fire to rain from heaven…”

    1 Kings 18:18:36-18, “And it came to pass at the time of the offering of the evening sacrifice, that Elijah the prophet came near, and said, LORD God of Abraham, Isaac, and of Israel, let it be known this day that thou art God in Israel, and that I am thy servant, and that I have done all these things at thy word. Hear me, O LORD, hear me, that this people may know that THOU art the LORD God, and that thou hast turned their heart back again. Then the fire of the LORD fell, and consumed the burnt sacrifice, and the wood, and the stones, and the dust, and licked up the water that was in the trench.”

    As the phrase, Hear me O LORD that this people may know that thou art the LORD God, is mentioned in 1 Kings 18:37 prior to the phrase, the fire of the LORD fell, in 1 Kings 18:38, it implies that Elijah sought God for assistance through prayer that caused God to answer his prayer by causing the fire of the LORD fell. Thus, it was merely the work of God instead of Elijah. Instead, the Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 38, mentions it was the capability of Elijah to cause fire to come down from heaven. This has put the reliability of the Gospel of Barnabas into question since how Elijah could have such power to bring fire down from heaven.

    19) The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 38, mentions that Joshua was powerful that he could make the sun to stand still and yet Joshua 10:14 mentions that it was God to listen to Joshua to make the sun to stand still. The following are the extracts:

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 38: “Remember Joshua, who made the sun stand still…”

    Joshua 10:12-14 (King James Version), “Then spake Joshua to the LORD in the day when the LORD delivered up the Amorites before the children of Israel, and he said in the sight of Israel, Sun, stand thou still upon Gibeon; and thou, Moon, in the valley of Ajalon. And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, until the people had avenged themselves upon their enemies. Is not this written in the book of Jasher? So the sun stood still in the midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day. And there was no day like that before it or after it, that the LORD hearkened unto the voice of a man: for the LORD fought for Israel.”

    As the phrase, the LORD hearkened unto the voice of a man, is mentioned in Joshua 10:14 with the phrase, the sun stood still, in Joshua 10:13, it implies that God was the One to listen to the words of Joshua to make the sun stood still. Yet the Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 38, mentions that Joshua was the one to cause the sun to stand still as if that Joshua had almighty power to cause it to stand still. This has put the reliability of the Gospel of Barnabas into question since how Joshua could have such supernatural power to cause the sun to stand still.

    20) The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 38, mentions that Elisha had the capability to raise a dead man and yet 2 Kings 4:33 mentions that it should be Elisha that prayed to God to cause the miracle to appear.

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 38: “Elisha raised a dead man…”

    2 Kings 4:32-33 (King James Version), “And when Elisha as come into the house, behold, the child was dead, and laid upon his bed. He went in therefore, and shut the door upon them twain, and prayed unto the Lord.” 2 Kings 4:35, “Then he returned, and walked in the house to and fro; and went up, and stretched himself upon him: and the child sneezed seven times, and the child opened his eyes.”

    The above verse from the Gospel of Barnabas has placed the reliability of the Gospel of Barnabas into question since how Elisa could have such supernatural power to raise a dead man.

    21) The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 41, condemns all women to be slaves of men after consuming forbidden fruit and yet Genesis 3:16 does not support it. The following are the extracts:

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 41, “And he spoke to Eve, saying: ‘And you who did [listen] to Satan, and gave the food to your husband, shall abide under the dominion of man, who shall keep you as a slave, and you shall bear children with travail.”

    Genesis 3:16 (King James Version), “Unto the woman he said, I will greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy conception; in sorrow thou shalt bring forth children; and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee.”

    22) The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 13, mentions that Abraham offered his only begotten son, Ishmael, as sacrifice and yet Genesis 22:9 mentions that he offered Isaac instead of Ishmael. The following are the extracts:

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 13: ‘Abraham, who being willing to make a sacrifice to God of his only-begotten son Ishmael, to fulfil the word of God, and the knife not being able to cut his son, at my word offered in sacrifice a sheep.’

    Genesis 22:9 (King James Version), “And they came to the place which God had told him of; and Abraham built an altar there, and laid the wood in order, and bound Isaac his son, and laid him on the altar upon the wood.”

    For instance, if the Gospel of Barnabas is the fulfilment of prophecy of Old Testament, there should not be any variation between them. The discrepancy between the Old Testament and the Gospel of Barnabas has placed the reliability of the Gospel of Barnabas into question.

    23) The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 23, mentions that Adam was the first man to circumcise and yet the book of Genesis mentions that Abraham was the first man to exercise circumcision.

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 23: ‘And having said this, Jesus sat night unto the mountain which they looked upon. And his disciples came to his side to listen to his words. Then said Jesus: ‘Adam the first man having eaten, by fraud of Satan, the food forbidden of God in paradise, his flesh rebelled against the spirit; whereupon he swore, saying: “By God, I will cut thee!”
    And having broken a piece of rock, he seized his flesh to cut it with the sharp edge of the stone: whereupon he was rebuked by the angel Gabriel. And he answered: “I have sworn by God to cut it; I will never be a liar!”
    ‘Then the angel showed him the superfluity of his flesh, and that he cut off. And hence, just as every man taketh flesh from the flesh of Adam, so is he bound to observe all that Adam promised with an oath. This did Adam observe in his sons, and from generation to generation came down the obligation of circumcision….”

    Nothing is mentioned in Genesis 3:16-17 about the circumcision of the foreskin of Adam after his sin. The following are the extracts:

    Genesis 3:16-17, “Unto the woman he said, I will greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy conception; in sorrow thou shalt bring forth children; and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee. And unto Adam he said, Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I command thee, saying, Thou shalt not eat of it: cursed is the ground for thy sake; in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life;”

    24) The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 23, mentions that Jesus told his disciples that they would be deprived of paradise if they had not circumcised their foreskin. Does the book of Torah support it?

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 23, “The disciples trembled with fear at these words of Jesus, for with vehemence of spirit he spoke. Then said Jesus: Leave fear to him that hath not circumcised his foreskin, for he is deprived of paradise.”

    Circumcision is first mentioned in Genesis 17:9-11 and this was the covenant that God gave to Abraham. The following are the extracts:

    Genesis 17:9-11, “And God said unto Abraham, Thou shalt keep my covenant therefore, which ye shall keep, between me and you and thy seed after thee; Every man child among you shall be circumcised. And ye shall circumcise the flesh of your foreskin; and it shall be a token of the covenant betwixt me and you.”

    The phrase, the flesh of your foreskin, in Genesis 17:11 does not specially mention what kind of foreskin that God referred to. According to Exodus 6:12 and Jeremiah 9:26, Moses and the people of Israelites were blamed to have uncircumcised lips and heart respectively despite they should have received traditional circumcision of removing foreskin since young. The following are the extracts:

    Exodus 6:30, “ And Moses said before the LORD, Behold, I am of uncircumcised lips, and how shall Pharaoh hearken unto me?”

    Jeremiah 9:26, “Egypt, and Judah, and Edom, and the children of Ammon, and Moab, and all that are in the utmost corners, that dwell in the wilderness: for all these nations are uncircumcised, and all the house of Israel are uncircumcised in the heart.”

    As Genesis 17:9-11 does not specifically mention what kind of foreskin God referred to, it is irrational to jump into the conclusion that the word, foreskin, here should not refer to the foreskin of heart. If the word, foreskin, in Genesis 17:9-11 should refer to the foreskin of the heart, it is irrational for anyone to condemn why those people who do not perform circumcision of foreskin according to the tradition of Jews.

    According to Deuteronomy 30:6, God was the One to circumcise the heart of Israelites. The following is the extract:

    Deuteronomy 30:6, “And the LORD thy God will circumcise thine heart, and the heart of thy seed, to love the LORD thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, that thou mayest live.”

    Even though Deuteronomy 30:6 mentions that God is the One to circumcise the heart of the people, the verses below demand them not to be stiff-necked to oppose the decision of God to circumcise among them by removing the foreskin of their heart:

    Deuteronomy 10:16, “Circumcise therefore the foreskin of your heart, and be no more stiffnecked.”

    The phrase, be no more stiffnecked, in Deuteronomy 10:16 demands the people not to be stiff-necked to the extent to resist God’s decision when He performed circumcision of heart as mentioned in Deuteronomy 30:6.

    Jeremiah 4:4, “Circumcise yourselves to the LORD, and take away the foreskins of your heart, ye men of Judah and inhabitants of Jerusalem: lest my fury come forth like fire, and burn that none can quench it, because of the evil of your doings.”

    The phrase, Circumcise yourselves to the LORD, as mentioned in Jeremiah 4:4 implies that the people have to be willing to accept the circumcision of heart instead of resisting it.

    Leviticus 26:41, “And that I also have walked contrary unto them, and have brought them into the land of their enemies; if then their uncircumcised hearts be humbled, and they then accept of the punishment of their iniquity:”

    The phrase, uncircumcised hearts be humbled, as mentioned in Leviticus 26:41 implies that the people have to humble themselves and instead of resisting God even though God was the One to perform circumcision of heart as mentioned in Deuteronomy 30:6.

    Jeremiah 6:10, “To whom shall I speak, and give warning, that they may hear? behold, their ear is uncircumcised, and they cannot hearken: behold, the word of the LORD is unto them a reproach; they have no delight in it.”

    As the phrase, circumcise the flesh of your foreskin, in Genesis 17:9-11 could refer to the circumcision of heart instead of otherwise and that our God does concern whether a person does circumcise in his heart instead of his outward appearance whether he does remove the foreskin according to traditional practice of Jews, it is irrational to condemn those people who do not follow traditional practice to perform circumcision. Even if one insists that the word, foreskin, in Genesis 17:9-11 should refer to circumcision of foreskin that is practised by Jews, the verses below support that God does not have any preference over sacrifice:

    Hosea 6:6, “For I desired mercy, and not sacrifice; and the knowledge of God more than burnt offerings.”

    Proverbs 15:8, “The sacrifice of the wicked is an abomination to the LORD: but the prayer of the upright is his delight.”

    Proverbs 21:3, “o do justice and judgment is more acceptable to the LORD than sacrifice..”

    As God does not have any preference upon sacrifice, it is irrational for us to emphasize a must to follow lamb sacrifice for sin offering or circumcision on foreskin according to the tradition of the Jews or etc.

    Daniel 9:27 even mentions that sacrifice, such as, sacrifice for sin offering or sacrifice through circumcision or etc., would cease.

    Daniel 9:27, “And he shall confirm the covenant with many for one week: and in the midst of the week he shall cause the sacrifice and the oblation to cease, and for the overspreading of abominations he shall make it desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate.

    As Daniel 9:27 mentions that sacrifice would cease, how could people be deprived of paradise at the exemption of circumcision on foreskin in time to pass?

    25) The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 39, mentions that God warned Adam not to eat forbidden fruit after the creation of his wife, Eve, and yet Genesis 2 mentions that God warned Adam before Eve came into existence. The following are the extracts:

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 39: “Seeing the man alone, God said: “It is not well that he should remain alone.” Wherefore he made him to sleep, and took a rib from near his heart, filling the place with flesh. Of that rib made he Eve, and gave her to Adam for his wife. He set the twain of them as lords of Paradise, to whom he said: “Behold I give to you every fruit to eat, except the apples and the corn” whereof he said: “Beware that in no wise you eat of these fruits, for you shall become unclean…”

    Genesis 2:16-18, “And the LORD God commanded the man, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat: But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die. And the LORD God said, It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him.” After that, Genesis 2:22, “And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man.”

    It is rational for God to warn Adam about the forbidden fruit prior to the creation of Eve in case if Adam would eat it and fall into sin prior to the creation of Eve. If God would warn Adam about the forbidden fruit after the creation of Eve, he might have eaten the fruit without knowing that it was forbidden fruit before the creation of Eve. Adam might give excuse not to be blamed due to his ignorance that he should not eat this fruit. As the Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 39, supports that God warned Adam not to eat forbidden fruit after the creation of his wife, this has placed the reliability of the Gospel of Barnabas into question.

    26) The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 39, mentions that God forbade Adam to eat apples and corns and yet Genesis 2:17 mentions that God forbade Adam to eat the fruit from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. The following are the extracts:

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 39, “Seeing the man alone, God said: “It is not well that he should remain alone.” Wherefore he made him to sleep, and took a rib from near his heart, filling the place with flesh. Of that rib made he Eve, and gave her to Adam for his wife. He set the twain of them as lords of Paradise, to whom he said: “Behold I give to you every fruit to eat, except the apples and the corns” whereof he said: “Beware that in no wise you eat of these fruits, for you shall become unclean, insomuch that I shall not suffer. You to remain here, but shall drive you forth shall suffer great miseries.”

    Genesis 2:16-17 (King James Version), “And the LORD God commanded the man, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat: But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.”

    The phrase, apples and the corns, is mentioned in the Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 39, with the word, unclean. None of the books in Torah do relate apples and corns to be unclean. Instead, apples and corns are treated to be healthy food in this contemporary world. This erroneous teaching has placed the reliability of the Gospel of Barnabas into question. How could apples and corns be considered unclean?

    27) The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 41, mentions Adam took fig leaves and made a clothing for themselves after realizing they were naked and yet Genesis 3:21 mentions that God was the One that made coats of skins for them. The following are the extracts:

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 41: “Then both of them knew that they were naked, and, being ashamed, they took fig leaves and made a clothing for their secret parts.”

    Genesis 3:21 (King James Version), “Unto Adam also and to his wife did the LORD God make coats of skins, and clothed them.”

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 41, mentions that Adam and Eve could be so smart that they could invent clothing themselves even though they never saw it before on how to make it. Genesis 3:21 mentions it was solely the invention from God.

    28) The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 41, mentions that God sent the angel Michael to drive Adam and Eve out from paradise and yet Genesis 3:23-24 mention that God was the One to drive them out to keep away from the tree of life. The following are the extracts:

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 41, “…the angel Michael drove them forth from paradise…”

    Genesis 3:23-24 (King James Version), “Therefore the LORD God sent him forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken. So he drove out the man; and he placed at the east of the garden of Eden Cherubims, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life.”

    29) The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 42, mentions that Isaiah prophesied the preparation for the coming of the messenger of the Lord so as to link it to Prophet Muhammad and yet Isaiah 40:3 mentions that it should be the preparation of the coming of the Lord instead the coming of the messenger of the Lord. The following are the extracts:

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 42: “Then Jesus said: “I am a voice that cries through all Judea, and cries: “Prepare you the way for the messenger of the Lord,” even as it is written in Esaias.”

    Isaiah 40:3 (King James Version), “The voice of him that crieth in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the LORD, make straight in the desert a highway of our God.”

    Isaiah 40:3 as mentioned above agrees with the statement as mentioned in Matthew 3:3, Mark 1:3, Luke 3:4 and John 1:23:

    Matthew 3:3 (King James Version), “For this is he that was spoken of by the prophet Esaias, saying, The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight.”

    Mark 1:3 (King James Version), “The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight.”

    Luke 3:4 (King James Version), “As it is written in the book of the words of Esaias the prophet, saying, The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight.”

    John 1:23 (King James Version), “He said, I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness, Make straight the way of the Lord, as said the prophet Esaias.”

    30) The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 50, mentions that Miriam was the sister of Moses and yet Exodus 15:20 mentions that she should be the sister of Aaron.

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 50, “…by Aaron and Miriam, sister of Moses, who judged their brother…”

    Exodus 15:20 (King James Version), “And Miriam the prophetess, the sister of Aaron…”

    31) The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 50, mentions that Cyrus judged Daniel to be meat for the lions and yet Daniel 6:9-13 mention that the king Darius should be the one that put him into lion’s den. The following are the extracts:

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 50: “Cyrus judged Daniel to be meat for the lions;…”

    Daniel 6:9-10, “Wherefore king Darius signed the writing and the decree. Now when Daniel knew that the writing was signed, he went into his house; and his windows being open in his chamber toward Jerusalem, he kneeled upon his knees three times a day, and prayed, and gave thanks before his God, as he did aforetime.” Daniel 6:13, “Then answered they and said before the king, That Daniel, which is of the children of the captivity of Judah, regardeth not thee, O King, nor the decree that thou hast signed, but maketh his petition three times a day.” Daniel 6:16, “Then the king commanded, and they brought Daniel, and cast him into the den of lions…”

    32) The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 63, mentions that the angel of God did not slay Pharaoh when he took the wife of Abraham and yet Genesis 20:2 mentions that Abimelech, king of Gerar, took his wife instead of Pharaoh. The following are the extracts:

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 63: “Thus did Abraham; for Pharaoh; who took from him his wife, and whom therefore, the angel of God did not slay, but only struck with infirmity.”

    Genesis 20:2, “And Abraham said of Sarah his wife, She is my sister: and Abimelech king of Gerar sent, and took Sarah.”

    33) The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 99, mentions that God called Abraham to kill his son so as to kill that evil love out of the heart of Abraham and yet Genesis 22:1 mentions that God tempted Abraham instead of killing evil out of his heart. The following are the extracts:

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 99: “Abraham loved his son Ishmael a little more than was right, so in order to kill that evil love out of the heart of Abraham, God commanded that he should slay his son: which he would have done had the knife cut.”

    Genesis 22:1-2 (King James Version), “And it came to pass after these things, that God did tempt Abraham, and said unto him, Abraham: and he said, Behold, here I am. And he said, Take now thy son, thine only son Isaac, whom thou lovest, and get thee into the land of Moriah; and offer him there for a burnt offering upon one of the mountains which I will tell thee of.”

    34) The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 104, mentions that the people called Moses to prevent God to speak to them lest they died and yet Exodus 19:21 mentions that God was the One to charge the people not to gaze lest they died.

    The Gospel of Barnabas, chapter 104, “..Now knew you not, that when God willed to speak to our fathers on Mount Sinai, our father cried out: “Speak you to us, O Moses, and let not God speak to us, lest we die”…”

    Exodus 19:21 (King James Version), “And the LORD said unto Moses, Go down, charge the people, lest they break through unto the LORD to gaze, and many of them perish.”

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